Globibunus rubrofemoratus Roewer, 1912 - Ecuador, Loja
These harvestmen range in body length from two to about five millimeters. Their coloring ranges from yellowish to dark brown. Some show yellow stripes or white or green patches.
The family is Neotropical ranging across the Greater Antilles and northern South America, with the southernmost record in Ecuador (Kury 2003, 2012). The subfamily Agoristeninae is endemic to the Greater Antilles. The other subfamilies have been found from northern South America.
The first members of Agoristenidae known to science were typically placed in the Phalangodidae Tricommatinae in the beginning of the 20th century. The family and two subfamilies (Agoristeninae and Leiosteninae) were only described by Šilhavý (1973) from the Antillean region and Trinidad. Avram (1977) added several Cuban species. The first described member of the family was Vima insignis under Phalangodidae (Hirst, 1912), later included in Tricommatinae by Roewer (1923) and finally transferred to Agoristenidae by González-Sponga (1987), who recognized the family in South America, reviewed Venezuelan species and described a new subfamily, Angelinae (first misspelled as Angelininae). A phylogenetic analysis was presented by Kury (1997) for all genera for which male genitalia are known. In the same paper Kury described Zamorinae, expanding the diagnostic characters of family and synonymized Angelinae with Leiosteninae. Kury (2012) added Globibuninae while removing Zamorinae to the Cranaidae.
• Size: body length around 2–5 mm. • Dorsum: Body trapezoidal attenuate (Zamorinae, Figure 4.20c), rectangular (Leiosteninae, Figure 4.20a) to oval (Agoristeninae, Figure 4.20e). Ocularium close to anterior border, very high with a pair of spines (Zamorinae, Figure 4.20c) or low with median depression (saddle shaped, Figure 4.20a) and usually smooth and unarmed (Agoristeninae, Leiosteninae, Figure 20a). Five areas on dorsal scutum, often effaced; I–IV and posterior margin with small tubercles; I divided; III–IV, posterior margin, and free tergites with or without a pair of spines. • Venter: Coxae with transverse rows of granules, growing larger anteriorly. Coxae I–III parallel to each other, IV a little more developed, but not hypertelic. Spiracles usually exposed. • Chelicerae: Similar in both sexes (Agoristeninae) or with enlarged segment II on males (Zamorinae and almost all Leiosteninae); segment I smooth or with small tubercles on dorsal. • Pedipalps: Short, thick with short setae (Agoristeninae, Zamorinae, Figure 4.20c) or slender with very long setae (Leiosteninae, Figure 4.20f). • Legs: Usually straight; I filiform and very short (Agoristeninae, Leiosteninae), II–IV normal or very long (Leiosteninae), I–IV short and densely granulate (Zamorinae, Figure 4.20c); IV with large tubercles in some males (Agoristeninae) or minute-tuberculate. Coxa IV anterior (near grooves II–III). Tarsal formula: 4–9(3):7–28(3–6):5–8:5–10. Tarsal process absent (except males of Lichirtes); claws smooth and subparallel. • Genitalia (Figures 4.20g–i): Truncus with an apical ventral plate short, unarmed, and divided; with strong setae bent to proximal side, uniramous (Zamorinae), bifid, or trifid (Agoristeninae, Leiosteninae). Stylus usually with dorsal soft longitudinal crest or keel. • Color: Varies from yellowish to dark brown; may show yellow stripes or white or green patches. Legs and tubercles may be darker. • Sexual dimorphism: Shown by cheliceral hand (segment II) swollen in males, tubercles on trochanter to tibia (mainly on leg IV) of males, and enlarged male astragalus IV.
There are currently 3 subfamilies, of which Globibuninae is the basal.
- Agoristeninae Šilhavý, 1973 (12 gen. 15 spp.) - Caribbean
- Globibuninae Kury, 2012 (2 gen. 3 spp.) - Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana
- Leiosteninae Šilhavý, 1973 (12 gen. 56 spp.) - Northern South America
(after Kury 1997b, 1997c, 2012)
- ↑ Kury, AB (2009) Family Agoristenidae . In: Kury AB (Ed.), Project Opilionomicon. Museu Nacional, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro. Online at: http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/Opilionomicon/Family%20Agoristenidae.htm
- ↑ Pinto-da-Rocha, R. & Kury, A.B. (2007a) Agoristenidae Šilhavý, 1973. Pp 171–173. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds.). Harvestmen: the biology of the Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge and London. x + 597 pages.