Ischyropsalis hellwigi by Ulla N
Ischyropsalis hellwigii (Panzer, 1794), photo Copyright © Ulla N., from fotocommunity [1]






386 spp

The Dyspnoi are a suborder of harvestmen, with about 40 genera, and about 370 described species.

Several fossil species are known, including two extinct families.

The superfamilies Ischyropsalidoidea and Troguloidea are monophyletic. However, the families Sabaconidae and Ceratolasmatidae were not; amongst other inconsistencies, Taracus (Sabaconidae) was a sister group to Hesperonemastoma (Ceratolasmatidae). This has been corrected by Giribet et al. (2010).


The Dyspnoi are one of the most conserved biogeographically conserved higher groups of harvestmen. Few occur in the Southern Hemisphere, and most families are restricted along temperate regions. The exceptions are some Ortholasmatinae (Nemastomatidae) inhabiting the tropics on high mountains in Mexico (Ortholasma bolivari) and northern Thailand (Dendrolasma angka); and species of Acropsopilionidae occuring in Australia, Chile and South Africa. Some Troguloidea were also found in tropical regions during the Cretaceous.[1]

Included subtaxa

Fossil incertae sedis

Acropsopilionoidea Roewer, 1923



External links

Schönhofer & Hedin, excellent Tree of Life Article. [2]

Dyspnoi Classification
Incertae sedis
Not assigned to family Ameticos | †Echinopustulatus
Superfamily Acropsopilionoidea
Family Acropsopilionidae Acropsopilio | Austropsopilio | Caddella
Family †Halithersidae Halitherses
Superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea
Family Ischyropsalididae
Subfamily Ceratolasmatinae Acuclavella | Ceratolasma
Subfamily Ischyropsalidinae Ischyropsalis
Family Sabaconidae Sabacon
Family Taracidae Crosbycus | Hesperonemastoma | Taracus
Superfamily Troguloidea
Family Dicranolasmatidae Dicranolasma
Family †Eotrogulidae Eotrogulus
Family Nemastomatidae

Subfamily Nemastomatinae Acromitostoma |

Carinostoma | Caucnemastoma | Centetostoma | Giljarovia | Hadzinia | Histricostoma | Mediostoma | Mitostoma | Nemaspela | Nemastoma | Nemastomella | Paranemastoma | Pyza | Saccarella | Starengovia | Vestiferum

Subfamily Ortholasmatinae Cladolasma | Dendrolasma | Martensolasma | Ortholasma | Trilasma
Family †Nemastomoididae Nemastomoides
Family Nipponopsalididae Nipponopsalis
Family Trogulidae Anarthrotarsus | Anelasmocephalus | Calathocratus | Kofiniotis | Trogulus
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